FANDOM


Symbol Nazwa Dźwięk Symbol
dźwięku
Adnotacje
? Znak zapytania glottal stop [ʔ]
ƍ odwrócona mała delta labialized voiced alveolo-dental fricative [ðʷ, zʷ]
σ mała sigma labialized voiceless alveolo-dental fricative [θʷ, sʷ]
ƺ eż z ogonkiem labialized voiced postalveolar fricative [ʒʷ]
ƪ odwrócony esz z pętlą labialized voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃʷ]
ƻ dwa kreskowane voiced alveolar affricate [d͡z] withdrawn 1976
ƾ voiceless alveolar affricate [t͡s] usunięta w 1976
ƞ prawonożne N syllabic n [n̩] usunięta w 1976
ƫ lewohaczne T palatalizowane t [tʲ] withdrawn 1989
ʓ kręconoogoniasty voiced alveolo-palatal(ized) fricative [ʒʲ] or [ʑ] withdrawn 1989
ʆ curly-tail esh voiceless alveolo-palatal(ized) fricative [ʃʲ] or [ɕ] withdrawn 1989
λ lambda voiced alveolar lateral affricate [d͡ɮ] Used by Americanists
ƛ lambda bar voiceless alveolar lateral affricate [t͡ɬ] Used by Americanists
ł l bar voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ] Used by Americanists
š č ž s c z with caron postalveolars [ʃ], [t͡ʃ], [ʒ] Used by Americanists, Slavicists
ǰ, ǧ, ǯ j, g, ezh with caron voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ] Used by Americanists, Slavicists etc.
x with dot voiceless uvular fricative [χ] Used by Americanists
10px baby gamma close-mid back unrounded vowel [ɤ] rejected 1989; Unicode LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (U+0264) represents either glyph
ᵻ / ᵿ barred small capital I / upsilon near-close central unrounded / rounded vowel [ɨ̞ / ʉ̞] used by the OED among others
Szablon:Sc small capital turned E close-mid near-back unrounded vowel [ɤ̘] used by some Koreanologists who study Gyeongsang dialect, where there is no phonemic differentiation between /ʌ/ (RR eo; Hangul ㅓ) and /ɯ/ (RR eu; Hangul ㅡ).Szablon:Citation needed
ʚ closed epsilon open-mid central rounded vowel [ɞ] a misprint of ɞ
ɷ closed omega near-close near-back rounded vowel [ʊ] rejected 1989
ω omega near-close near-back unrounded vowel [ʊ̜] Made by analogy to ɜ and ɞ from ɷ or ʊ symbol.
ı dotless small i near-close near-front unrounded vowel [ɪ] a mistake
ȹ ȸ voiceless and voiced labiodental plosive [p̪ b̪] used in Africanist linguistics
Szablon:Sc or Ø slashed 0 or uppercase slashed O null initial Usually used in phonology to mean "no sound values." However, in Chinese linguistics, some scholars considered it as "weak" glottal stop or something similar as sound value of the "existent" first consonant of syllables started by a vowel (e.g. ān in Tiān'ānmén), and this opinion can be connected with ㅇ (ieung) in hangul. Szablon:Sc can be confusing with close-mid front rounded vowel [ø].
ƥ ƭ ƈ ƙ ʠ hooktop P, T, C, K, Q voiceless implosives [ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̊] withdrawn in 1993
ʇ turned T dental click [ǀ] superseded 1989
ʗ stretched C alveolar click [ǃ] superseded 1989
ʖ inverted glottal stop alveolar lateral click [ǁ] superseded 1989
ʞ turned K velar click Proposed symbol withdrawn 1970; articulation judged impossible[1]
ɩ small iota near-close near-front unrounded vowel [ɪ] rejected 1989
ɼ long-leg R voiced strident apico-alveolar trill (Czech ř) [r̝] withdrawn 1989
10px looptail g voiced velar plosive [ɡ] The standard Unicode Basic Latin/ASCII lower-case g (U+0067) may have a "looptail g" glyph; the preferred IPA "open-tail g" (U+0261) is in the IPA Extensions Unicode block
ȣ ou close-mid back unrounded vowel or voiced velar fricative [ɤ] or [ɣ] a mistake in either case
я reversed ʀ or Cyrillic ya voiced epiglottal trill [ʀ̠]
ɿ reversed fishhook R / turned iota apical dental unrounded vowel [z̩] used by Sinologists, and by Japanologists studying the phonology of the Miyako language
ʅ squat reversed esh (actually ɿ with retroflex tail) apical retroflex unrounded vowel [ʐ̩] used by Sinologists. See Chinese vowels
ʮ turned h with fishhook apical dental rounded vowel [z̩ʷ] used by Sinologists
ʯ turned h with fishhook and tail apical retroflex rounded vowel [ʐ̩ʷ] used by Sinologists
small capital A open central vowel any of [ä a̱ ɑ̈ ɑ̞ ɐ̞] used by Sinologists
small capital A open back unrounded vowel [ɑ] superseded 1900
small capital E mid front unrounded vowel [e̞] or [ɛ̝] used by Sinologists and some Koreanologists
G R Œ etc. uppercase letters [ɢ ʀ ɶ] etc. Uppercase alternatives to symbols shaped like small capitals
Szablon:Sc small capital Q gemination [kk tt] or [kː tː] etc. Used in Japanese phonology to represent the Sokuon.
   belted Voiceless lateral fricatives (retroflex, palatal and velar) [ɭ̥̝ ʎ̥̝ ʟ̥̝]
ɑ̢ etc. underdot ("retroflex" or r-colored vowels) [ɑ˞] etc.
ȡ ȶ ȵ ȴ etc. or d̂ t̂ n̂ l̂ etc. curl or circumflex alveolo-palatal [d̠ʲ t̠ʲ n̠ʲ l̠ʲ] used by Sinologists
k', etc. no audible release [k̚], etc. Withdrawn
d̡ t̡ etc. subscript left hook palatalization [dʲ tʲ] etc. superseded 1989
etc. subscript w labialization [kʷ] etc. superseded 1989
K P T etc. uppercase letters (not small capitals) fortis [k͈ p͈ t͈], etc. used by some Koreanologists
ɔ̗ / ɔ̖ etc. lower-pitched rising / falling tone contour In a language which distinguishes more than one rising or falling tone.
k‘ t‘ or kʻ tʻ left quote or reversed comma "weak" (or sometimes "normal") aspiration [k t] (sometimes [kʰ tʰ]) First symbol may be left single quotation mark (U+2018) or modifier letter apostrophe (U+02BC); second symbol may be single high-reversed-9 quotation mark (U+201B) or modifier letter reversed comma (U+02BD)
ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ etc. ligatures affricates [ts dz tʃ dʒ] etc. or [t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ] etc. Formerly an acceptable variant[2]
[p′] etc. prime palatalization [pʲ] etc. Traditional in accounts of Irish phonology

The table below shows official IPA symbols not used as the original definition of IPA.

c It is sometimes used as [t͡s], [t͡ʃ] or [t͡ɕ].
j It is sometimes used as [d͡ʒ] or [d͡ʑ].
y It is sometimes used as [j].
ä It is sometimes used as [ɛ] or [æ].
ö It is sometimes used as [ø] or [œ].
ü It is sometimes used as [y] or [ʏ].
r It is frequently used as one of rhotic sounds (including R-colored vowels) or of liquid sounds especially in phonological transcriptions.
l It is usually used as one of liquid sounds especially in phonological descriptions.
a It is frequently used as alternative for [ɑ] in printing when the distinction between [a] and [ɑ] is not used.
ɑ It is frequently used as alternative for [a] in handwriting when the distinction between [a] and [ɑ] is not used.
k’ etc. Fortis sounds in Korean used by some Koreanologists. = [k*], etc. above.
ʃ ʒ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ They are sometimes used as alternative for [ɕ], [ʑ], [t͡ɕ] and [d͡ʑ] respectively especially by some Japanologists and Koreanologists.
ɲ ʎ They are sometimes used as alternative for the unofficial symbols [ȵ] and [ȴ] respectively especially by some Japanologists and Koreanologists.
ʀ Chōon in Japanese especially used in some phonologic transcriptions.

Błąd rozszerzenia cite: Istnieje znacznik <ref>, ale nie odnaleziono znacznika <references/>